Although academic skills, conceptualised as writing and critical thinking, are a vital part of university studies, research indicates that many students leave without having mastered these skills effectively. This research also reflects on nursing students. Nursing could also be said to be hampered by a number of complex educational challenges that are likely to impact on the academic socialisation process in general. These challenges include being a relatively 'young' academic discipline, the 'theory-practice' divide, a knowledge bed lying on a complex intersection of two 'antithetical sciences' and, at least in the Scandinavian countries, an increasing number of nurse educators with a PhD in nursing science but with limited time to develop their own teaching skills. In combination, these challenges have the potential to act as stumbling blocks, both from a teaching and learning perspective. I would suggest that a departure in teaching from theoretical educational models, such as Lea and Street's 'academic literacies model,' including skills, socialisation and academic literacy models simultaneously, could be one of several ways forward to create a learning environment that takes these issues into account. Copyright 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Existing research suggests that there is a relation between academic/cognitive deficits and externalizing behavior in young children, but the direction of this relation is unclear. The present study tested competing models of the relation between academic/cognitive functioning and behavior problems during early childhood. Participants were 221 children (120 boys, 101 girls) who participated in a longitudinal study from age 3 to 6. A reciprocal relation (Model 3) was observed only between inattention and academic achievement; this relation remained controlling for SES and family stress. The relation between inattention and cognitive ability was consistent with Model 1 (cognitive skills predicting later inattention) with controls. For hyperactivity and aggression, there was some support for Model 2 (early behavior predicting later academic/cognitive ability), but this model was no longer supported when controlling for family functioning. These results suggest that the relation between academic achievement/cognitive ability and externalizing problems may be driven primarily by inattention. These results also suggest that this relation is evident early in development, highlighting the need for early assessment and intervention. 1e1e36bf2d